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in News 14.02.2016 06:34
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EpidemiologyThe persistence of obesity into adulthood depends on several ftors Wholesale NHL Jerseys , including the age at which the child bees obese, the severity of the disease and the presence of obesity in at least one parent. Overweight in a child under three years of age does not predict future obesity, unless at least one parent is also obese. After age three, however, the likelihood that obesity will persist into adulthood increases with the advancing age of the child and is higher in children with severe obesity in all age groups. After an obese child rehes six years of age, the probability that obesity persists exceeds 50 percent, and 70 to 80 percent of obese adolescents will remain so as adults. The presence of obesity in at least one parent increases the risk of persistence in children at every age.PathophysiologyA person gains weight when energy input exceeds energy output. Energy input is food. Several studies have own that, on average Cheap NHL Jerseys , obese children do not consu significantly more calories that their thin peers. Energy output prises the basal tabolic rate, the thermal effect of food and tivity. The thermal effect of food is the energy required to absorb and digest als. Of these variables, tivity is the one least influenced by geic inheritance and is therefore the one most susceptible to change. By asure, 3,500 calories is equivalent to one pound; thus, an excess of only 50 to 100 calories per day will lead to a five- to ten-pound weight gain over one year. As a result, a relatively small imbalance beeen energy input and output can lead to significant weight gain over ti. In ft, most obese children demonstrate a slow but consistent weight gain over several years.Evaluation of Obese ChildrenOnly a small percentage of childhood obesity is associated with a hormonal or geic defect Cheap NFL Jerseys China , with the remainder being idiopathic in nature. Obese children ould be evaluated for associated morbidity. This includes an assessnt of cardi risk ftors, weight-related orthopedic problems, skin disorders and potential psychiatric sequelae. Cardi risk ftors include a family history of early cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol and blood pressure levels, cigarette smoking, the presence of diabetes llitus and decreased physical tivity. The National Cholesterol Education Program rends that physicians screen all obese children over o years of age for elevated cholesterol levels. Obese children also have increased average blood pressure, heart rate and cardi output when pared to non-obese peers. Tobao use ould be ascertained in all young people, as this represents an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. Finally Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale , the presence of diabetes ould be considered in all morbidly obese children. While overt type 2 diabetes llitus is rare in childhood, hyper-insulin emia and glucose intolerance are nearly universal in morbidly obese children. The child’s level of physical tivity ould be assessed, not only for cardi risk evaluation, but also to help guide future treatnt. Television viewing patterns ould be reviewed, since television viewing has been own to be associated with obesity in childhood. Because they carry excess weight, obese children are at increased risk for orthopedic problems. Obese children are also more prone to skin disorders than are non-obese children, especially if deep skin folds are present. It is essential to address psychiatric problems, including depression Cheap NFL Jerseys , poor self-esteem, negative self-image and withdrawal from peers.Fts

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